Building Construction is Still the Firefighter's Enemy (2022)

Recently, I was discussing textbooks and reference materials that I have in my library at home with some of my constituents. Spending over a quarter of a century in the fire service has allowed me to amass a considerable amount of literature as it pertains to the discharge of our duties as firefighters. There are a few that I continue to reference, primarily because these specific books have proven to withstand the passages of time, techniques and industry standards. One such book will always be Frank Brannigan’s third edition of Building Construction for the Fire Service (BCFS).

While I also possess the latest version of this manual, I will go on record and state that I will never find a reason good enough to discard this reference guide, for a few reasons. First and foremost, I tip my helmet in respect to the Old Professor and Glen Corbett, PE, for combining forces prior to deliver the high-quality fourth edition of BCFS. Although I have a copy of that edition as well, I still use his third edition consistently more than any other reference book in my library. Secondly, the copy I have was signed by the Old Professor himself; it is irreplaceable.

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Hitting The Streets To Find Hazards

Brannigan’s mantra, “The Building is Your Enemy. Know Your Enemy,” was drilled into my sub-conscious at an early age, and I continue to preach his words to anyone who will listen. It is a message that I continue to pass on to every one of my department members, boot school recruits, seminar attendees, and fire service professionals within earshot of my discussions. In order to “…Know the Enemy” we owe it to Frank’s memory to continue to seek out new ways that the “Enemy” is plotting to catch us off-guard, laying in wait to catch us in a moment of apathy. A great way of doing this is our “field trips” to construction sites within our first-due response area, looking to see how the structures are built before the fire. Additionally, I have been known to travel with a digital camera within close proximity for just this reason; many times construction “techniques” are present, wide open for all to see. As I have done for many years, I have photographed some interesting existing construction “concerns” that raised an eyebrow when I saw them for the first time. In keeping with Chief Brannigan’s message, I present a few “nuggets” of building construction awareness that you should feel free to pass on to anyone who wants them.

A new residential development was being constructed within two miles of my station, so we took a ride over to see how the construction was progressing. Photo 1 was taken at the area where construction materials are dropped off by delivery vehicles for crews to grab as needed. A stack of TJI joists were draped over a job box, and curved and weakened as they sat. These TJI joists are used in the floors and roofs of these residences; it is bad enough that during construction the cutout guidelines are rarely followed. Most of the time I have seen cutouts widened beyond the maximum limit by workers. Finding these joists in this condition is disheartening, because I know these joists will find their way into the floor of one of these new “starter castles.”

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Looking inside one of the castles, I immediately was intrigued by the presence of an indoor balcony within the great room (Photo 2). Further scrutiny revealed a series of cantilevered beams that were hung in joist hangers and Tico sheer nails, and extended out from a Parallam header in the room. Furthermore, the voids within the bottom of the balcony house a number of recessed light fixtures. The voids will allow fire to travel unimpeded, and attack the cantilevered beams, possibly leading to early collapse on an unsuspecting hose team.

Traveling on my way to work, I drove past a garage that was being “renovated,” so to speak. What really caught my interest was the method of transformation this building experienced. Many times buildings are renovated and rarely have any problems with the end result. However, comparing Photo 3 (the finished result) and Photo 4 (during construction) suggests that many surprises lay in wait within this garage. The smart Incident Commander (IC) who familiarizes oneself with construction in the surrounding area can feel confident with the tactics deployed at an emergency. This one suggests a defensive posture early upon arrival.

Our crew was sent out to perform a Smoke Detector Compliance Test at a residence that was being sold in our community. While we were there, the owner asked us to assist in changing the battery within the attic detector. Entering into the attic was not through a scuttle hatch; it was through a full-size door. Apparently, the owner “renovated” this space to allow for additional storage within the attic. His plan included sawing out multiple web posts and the king post within a series of trusses in the attic space over the garage (Photo 5). Moreover, the bottom chord of this peak roof truss is now in compression, instead of tension, because of the weight of the stored materials transferred to the floor. This area can collapse even without being ravaged by flames, but most responders wouldn’t know it by looking from the exterior.

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Incident

We responded to a partial collapse of a carport after a delivery truck hit the underside of the roof assembly. Upon arrival, the carport overhang was obviously displaced on the columns supporting it, but did not seem to be significant in nature. Further investigation was needed to check the interior and underside of the roof assembly, exposing a lightweight metal truss assembly within the carport (Photo 6). Responding to this facility on routine alarms usually places one apparatus within the underside of this carport; since the discovery, the staging area for apparatus has now been changed.

Stopping by a construction site for a new retail store, I was curious about a truss assembly that had been placed off to the side of the site. These trusses were doubled up, constructed of wood and metal, and had engineered wood thrust blocks within the webs of the assemblies (Photo 7). I took the pictures to one of the engineers on our USAR (urban search and rescue) team, and he explained to me that these are Wood Chord, Metal Web Truss Assemblies (WCMW Truss). The WCMW truss is used in the roof assembly where there exists a significant concentrated load, perhaps an HVAC unit, ventilation system assemblies, and the like. Assembling these units includes a ¾” pin through both the chord and the web ends, connecting the metal webs to the chords. The insertion of this pin leaves a little more than ½” of material above and below the pins, making for a significant weak point in the assembly.

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Repairs to structures are not usually exposed for all to see; in Photo 8, repairs were made to a five-story heavy timber structure in a neighboring community. While spreader plates are common within Type III and IV construction, symmetrical placement of these plates suggests that the building was designed to use these plates and tension rod assemblies. The beams in place in this application are serving as a “tie-back” for this wall. This is a red flag, for any response. This area must be avoided at all costs.

Looking at Photo 9, the obvious renovations are what draw your attention. Further looking at the area in question, there are multiple types of construction/loading within this wall, along with multiple layers of outside covering and siding. These clues suggest this building has been experiencing numerous problems throughout its lifespan. Additionally, changes to the loading of exterior walls can have a serious impact on how the rest of the structure is supported.

Conclusion

Chief Brannigan was a proponent of pre-planning buildings within the firefighter’s response area, as this arms the IC with as much knowledge about how the building was constructed prior to the fire. I continue to seek out hazards within our response area, and share this knowledge with as many people as I can. I challenge you to do the same; take your crew out for a “field trip” and look to see what is going around in front of you. I will bet that you will be surprised by what you will find, especially when you go out looking for it.

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Until next time, stay focused and stay safe!

  • See Mike Live! Author Lt. Michael Daley will be presenting "Basement Fires" and "Strategies and Tactics for Fires in Attics and Cocklofts" at Firehouse Expo in Baltimore, July 23 - 27.

MICHAEL P. DALEY is a lieutenant and training officer with the Monroe Township, NJ, Fire District No. 3, and is an instructor with the Middlesex County Fire Academy, where he is responsible for rescue training curriculum development. Mike has an extensive background in fire service operations and holds degrees in business management and public safety administration. Mike serves as a rescue officer with the New Jersey Urban Search and Rescue Task Force 1 and is a managing member for Fire Service Performance Concepts, a consultant group that provides assistance and support to fire departments with their training programs and course development. You can reach Michael by e-mail at: FSEducator@aol.com.

Also See: More Images Of Marked Buildings The building is the enemy in the fire service.. If the building is hazardous why not mark the building also?. The building itself could be marked to indicate the hazards that are inherent to that specific building or the type of construction used to construct that building.. New York City has a building marking system used to mark vacant buildings.. In addition to using the building hazard marking system, units are advised to insure that the roof is properly ventilated after a fire in a vacant building.. The address should be an additional marking put on the exterior of the building so that if information is available for that specific building, it gets to the operating forces.. New York enacted a law requiring new truss-constructed commercial buildings to be marked with a triangle to indicate truss buildings.. Photo By Mike Dugan This vacant building has the address and the date on the building along with the hazard marking.. See: More Images Of Marked Buildings However it is accomplished, marking buildings that are hazardous is another tool that can be used to save firefighter's lives.. Marking vacant buildings is easy because the owner has left the building and the fire department can routinely inspect the exterior of vacant buildings to determine as much as possible the condition of the structure.

Leadership, communications & building construction cited as major factors in 22-year-old tragedyBy FireRescue magazine staff. On Friday, July 1, 1988, as firefighters from the Hackensack (N.J.) Fire Department prepared for the holiday weekend, calls began pouring in reporting flames and smoke coming from the roof of the Hackensack Ford Dealership.The entire Hackensack Fire Department—all 100 firefighters—responded to the fire.. Months later, an International Association of Fire Fighters’ (IAFF) investigation report cited ineffective leadership, poor communications and the failure of command personnel to recognize that the roof could collapse, concluding that the five firefighters died “needlessly.”. IAFF Report Blames Leadership. Following the tragedy, an investigation was commissioned by the IAFF, AFL-CIO, which had been asked to look into the fatal fire by Local 2081, the union that represents the Hackensack Fire Department’s rank-and-file firefighters.. Per The New York Times article, the IAFF report put forth two major areas of concern: 1) the inability of fire commanders to realize the dangers inherent in the design of a wooden bowstring truss roof, and 2) a massive communications breakdown that ultimately led to Reinhagen and Ennis not receiving the help they needed.. Additionally, Demers said Battalion Chief Sandy Williams, the department’s initial commander at scene that day, surveyed the roof and thought it was a steel truss roof.. Demers contended that Chief Williams, primarily because of the volume of fire on the rooftop, should have ordered nine firefighters out of the garage within 7 minutes of his arrival.

Check the below NCERT MCQ Questions for Class 7 English Honeycomb Chapter 8 Fire: Friend and Foe with Answers Pdf free download.. We have provided Fire: Friend and Foe Class 7 English MCQs Questions with Answers to help students understand the concept very well.. Lowering the temperature below the flash point:. (a) causes fire. (b) extinguishes the fire. (c) lowers the density. (d) none of the above. When carbon and hydrogen are combined with oxygen, they:. (a) can cause fire. (b) can cease fire. (c) explode. (d) none of the above. Early man might have experienced fire by. (a) Watching lighting and volcanoes. (b) watching fire files. (c) keeping it under wraps. (d) none of these. If the fire has no fuel to feed on, preventing oxygen supply and removing the heat can lead to. (a) put out fire. (b) break out epidermic. (c) start a fire. (d) cook our food. Bands of fire fighter are known for being the. (a) Trained people to putout fire. (b) skilled people to put out fire. (c) trained people in first aid. (d) all of these. The oil floats onto the top of the water. (a) as water is heavier than the oil. (b) as oil is lighter than the water. (c) as water is sprayed onto an oil. (d) all the above fire. Answer Fuel and oxygen do not make fire by themselves, or else a newspaper or a stick lying in the open would catch fire on its own.. We are providing NCERT MCQ Questions for Class 7 English Honeycomb Chapter 8 Fire: Friend and Foe with Answers Pdf free download will help you.. If you have any queries regarding CBSE Class 7 English Fire: Friend and Foe MCQ Questions MCQs Multiple Choice Questions with Answers, drop a comment below and we will get back to you soon.

Essentially we need to prepare the fireground commander with the foundational topics that will allow them to make the best risk benefit assessment possible.. Building construction techniques in general and specifically those that exist within their district The initiation and evolution of the various fire stages The burn characteristics of the building materials of the structures they may fight fire in and those clues that may warn them of an impending collapse.. One of the most significant skills a fireground commander should possess is one they can obtain before ever showing up on scene of a fire.. Knowing how a building is constructed will greatly enhance the fireground commander's ability to project the movement and speed of a fire that involves a building's structure versus a contents fire.. Ignition The period when oxygen, heat, fuel and chain reaction come together in proper rations to allow for the initial combustion process to occur.. At this point in the evolution of the fire, heat from the growth stage has sufficiently heated up surrounding fuels to the point where their flammable vapors are sufficient in volume and heat to ignite all fuels within an area simultaneously.. Crews were able to get on scene and get water to the seat of the fire before the volume of fire caused flashover.. In addition, the fireground commander and all firefighters within the structure must have a working mental reference of indicators of building collapse.. Finally, before deploying their resources, the fireground commander must consider the operational readiness of their crews.. Are your engineers practiced enough to get the apparatus positioned for best utilization, and are they able to operate the pump or the ladder quickly and efficiently?. Do you have sufficient staffing to meet assignments that the unit will be given in a safe and efficient manner?. Is there sufficient staffing on the apparatus to make an initial attack or provide support for an engine crew?. As we can see, a well prepared fireground commander knows the structures they will be deploying firefighters into.. Next month we will connect the information presented here with a risk/benefit process to allow the fireground commander to make the best selection when deciding whether to initiate an offensive or defensive fire attack.

It requires building owners, who are tasked with implementing it, to designate a fire prevention program manager to make sure the correct fire safety measures are being followed during the entirety of a construction project.. To that end, NFPA and the American Wood Council (AWC) are both ramping up efforts to better educate stakeholders on construction fire safety resources including NFPA 241 in an attempt to reduce fires in buildings under construction.. While wood-frame construction poses a legitimate concern to the firefighters who may have to charge into burning buildings, experts like Allan Fraser, senior building code specialist at NFPA, stress that when a building is under construction, it’s the state of being under construction itself that puts it at the greatest risk for fire, rather than what it’s made of.. In other words, the risk of a fire starting in a steel building under construction is equal to the risk of a fire starting in a wood-frame building under construction, Fraser said.. When fires do start in wood-frame buildings under construction, though, the inherent strength differences between wood and a material like steel are what fuel the fire service concerns.. Here & Gone Recent fires in buildings under construction or renovation include, clockwise from top right, a former mill building in Colorado undergoing conversion to a mixed-use development; an apartment complex in Raleigh, North Carolina; an apartment building in Oakland, California; and an apartment complex in Overland Park, Kansas.. In response to the recent fires in wood-frame buildings under construction, the AWC, a trade association representing the majority of wood products manufacturers in North America, intends to drive traffic to its website on construction fire safety .. A recent NFPA report, “ Fires in Structures Under Construction, Undergoing Major Renovation, or Being Demolished ,” found that from 2010 to 2014, there was an annual average of 8,440 fires in buildings under construction or being renovated or demolished.. “We will be doing more training for building owners, but we will also be training fire departments to go out and train building owners, because fire departments simply don’t have the resources to monitor construction sites on a continuous basis,” Fraser said.. While adoption, enforcement, and implementation of NFPA 241 remains an AHJ responsibility, NFPA 241 places the ultimate responsibility for the day in, day out fire safety of the construction site on the building owner.. Fires involving large apartment complexes under construction have dominated headlines, but construction fires are a problem for buildings across a range of occupancies.Photograph: Chris Shipley: The Morning Call. In fact, in the five-year span it examined, 27 percent of fires in buildings under construction, on average, were caused by cooking equipment; hot work involving a torch, burner, or soldering iron only accounted for six percent of the fires.. For buildings undergoing renovation, heating equipment was the leading cause of fires, at 15 percent, and for buildings being demolished, intentionally set fires were by far the leading cause, at 42 percent.

Allow you to fire.. Your fighting position should be built so that, when you come under direct fire from your front, you can move behind the frontal cover for protection and yet fire to the oblique.. It should be behind whatever cover is available.. Build the overhead cover for the position like that for a two-man fighting position.. After digging the platform, prepare your range card and then dig your hole.. They can be fired from any fighting position.

Early water application would upset the thermal balance driving heat downward on potential victims and causing a loss of visibility.. In the beginning, firefighters used their senses to detect heat and move towards the heat based on this information.. When surface cooling or fuel wetting are not possible due to the elevation of the fire room, missing ceiling, or obstacles, firefighters should consider alternative means of water distribution to improve the effectiveness of suppression actions from outside the fire room.. Suppression actions, whether interior or exterior, generally resulted in a decrease in temperatures and gas concentrations at locations where occupants may potentially be located.. But there are many firefighters who are opening the nozzle on the way to the fire but our research has shown that the majority of these fire suppression efforts are brief short Burts or penciling techniques.. It also should be emphasized that the concept of “penciling” was borrowed from our friends overseas and US firefighters improperly applied the concept in order to “control” a flashover container environment.. This decrease is a combination of cooling from the water flow and the cool air being entrained by the fire.. At 7 ft, above the firefighters’ heads, the temperatures averaged 360◦F and decreased an average of 10% after burst suppression and also recovered within seconds.. “Pressure moves from high to low and introducing a stream that will not disrupt the thermal layer but penetrate and do away with it, low air entrainment volume and a reduction in temperature that creates gas contraction makes for an effective fire attack.. It is quite interesting to note that the same teachers that instruct firefighters not to open the nozzle until they reach the fire room for fear of upsetting the thermal balance actually allow temperatures to increase while making their “fire attack” and when they finally do open the nozzle the steam conversion is much higher due to the higher level of temperature and pressurization within that confined space.. This thermal layer is actually deleted by early water application causing less thermal upset and a more gradual cooling rather than a more violent effect by those who choose to wait to open the nozzle at the fire room.. At the higher elevations in the space (in the smoke layer) the moisture would increase between approximately 2% by volume during the period between 5 seconds prior to and 60 seconds after suppression however it would increase by a similar amount from ignition until the time of 5 seconds prior to suppression.. With no appreciable increase in moisture content at the 1 ft level even after suppression, it is not possible the suppression is causing a victim further damage due to steam.. Proper water application applied early and consistently moving towards the seat of the fire reduces overall temperatures, increases chances for victim survival, and reduces the risk of rapid fire development.

How do you protect your home, retreat or homestead if it is underground or if it is of different design and construction than a regular house?. Unless you maintain the option of mobility, your shelter could become a death trap.. Make the most of your materials and construction method starting in the design phase.. While burning defenders out is an ancient tactic that is difficult to defend against in a wood framed home, defending a home against fire becomes a reasonable goal if you construct your home of primarily inflammable materials such as containers, earth, concrete, brick or blocks.. Containers lend themselves to the construction of fort or motor court style homes where an inner courtyard can be enclosed by containers arranged in a square instead.. Choosing Your Camp Site. First of all, you need to exercise great care in your choice of campsites.. Choose sites that are unobservable from lines of drift.. Avoid campsites near key terrain that could be used to locate you, correct fire or pour direct fire down into your camp.. Your camp must train together as a unit.. For a security element to become effective in combat, they must shoot, move and communicate as a unit.. Force or combat multipliers are specialized equipment and personnel with specialized training who can give a smaller group combat effectiveness equal to a larger one.. Then improve your fighting positions by digging them in and camouflaging them.. Pickets must be able to silently warn the camp of enemy approach so the camp can man a layered defense.. Use a combination of natural and very well camouflaged improved obstacles outside your perimeter to channel the enemy away from your camp along lines of drift.. Written by Cache Valley Prepper Cache Valley Prepper is the CEO of Survival Sensei, LLC, a freelance author, writer, survival instructor, consultant and the director of the Survival Brain Trust.

Fire: Friend and Foe – NCERT Class 7 English Honeycomb book Lesson 8 -Detailed explanation of the lesson along with the meanings of difficult words.. This is known as fire.. Hence, we know that three things are required for the making of fire – heat, fuel and oxygen.. The second way of putting out a fire is to prevent oxygen from reaching it.. In this chemical reaction, oxygen gas is combined with carbon and hydrogen in a fuel, energy is released in the form of heat and light which is what we call fire.. The second way of putting out a fire is to prevent oxygen from reaching it.. A fire cannot burn without oxygen.. Carbon dioxide will form a blanket around the fire which will prevent oxygen from reaching the burning fuel.. Some fires cannot be put out with water.. There are some fires which cannot be put out with water.. (c) fire.. (i) (c) fire.. (i) That is fire.. In each way, one of the three things required to make a fire ( fuel, oxygen and heat ) is taken away.. (iv) A carbon dioxide extinguisher is the best thing – to put out an electrical fire.

No-one living in a building where the freeholder or head lessor is an associated company of the developer will have to pay anything, for cladding or non-cladding costs.. The amendments as drafted at the moment say only leaseholders living in an affected leasehold property as at the start of 14 February 2022 benefit from the protection.. The amendments create a series of new statutory powers – explained in further detail below – enabling action to be taken against developers, cladding manufacturers and companies associated with them to force them to pay toward non-cladding costs.. As explored in further detail below, in buildings where there are many buy-to-let investors, or where there are leaseholders who simply cannot pay to the level of their caps, what happens if the money required cannot be raised?. Are leaseholders still going to be in the position of having to pay money to remediate buildings that do not actually require remediation, or at least not remediation of the type being undertaken?. The caps include some costs related to remediation (including waking watch costs) that leaseholders have paid already, meaning that – if this new legal engine runs as intended – they may not have to pay anything.. Now that costs leaseholders must pay are being capped, the government’s clear expectation is that mortgage lenders and surveyors will take a more realistic view of how affected properties are to be valued.. The proposed leaseholder protection amendments could be further improved by automatically preventing landlords from recovering their legal costs, regardless of the terms of the lease, where they attempted in any litigation to defend bills that were found to be subject to the cap.. That includes all buildings except commonhold land or buildings where the freehold or head leasehold interest has been acquired under Chapter 1 of Part 1 of the Leasehold Reform, Housing and Urban Development Act 1993).. The second type of claim (called “costs contribution notices”) allows the government to make an order directing a cladding or construction product manufacturer to make contributions toward remediation of buildings where the manufacturer has been fined or sentenced for breaching product safety standards.. The new leaseholder protection amendments will require careful review to ensure that costs on landlords triggered by these new claims do not fall to be paid by leaseholders through the terms of the service charge, particularly in cases where the landlord is not at fault.. In addition to the ability to pursue landlords through remediation orders and remediation contribution orders, the government proposes to amend the law to entitle the liquidator of an insolvent landlord to pursue associated companies of the landlord.

Abadan Metropole buildingOn May 23, the ten-story Metropol Complex in Abadan, southwest Iran, collapsed.. The tragic event brought the critical state of many Iranian towers and buildings to light.. In an interview aired on Iran’s state TV on Friday, May 27, Kamran Abdoli, Deputy Fire Protection and Security of the Fire Department, revealed some damning information about the current state of many Iranian buildings.. “We have already identified 33,000 buildings in Tehran, primarily old buildings.. When the host asked Abdoli whether they surrendered the report to the Judiciary, he reluctantly acknowledged that his department had given numerous reports to state officials, mainly the Judiciary, but to no avail.. He claimed, that “the Judiciary is not responsible for everything” while laying the blame on other regime officials and institutions, saying “the relevant officials should zealously fulfill their duties.” Montazeri blatantly called the tragedy an “opportunity.”. “What you call an opportunity, the people in Abadan consider it a threat and tragedy,” the state TV host interrupted.. The conversation on Iran’s live TV, known for spreading lies, reflected the current volatile state in Iran’s society, mainly in Abadan.. But what the state TV deliberately ignored was the regime’s role in tragedies such as the one in Metropol and Plasco.. Following last week’s heart-wrenching incident, Iran’s state media acknowledged that a year ago, experts had warned of the possibility of the building’s collapse due to weak structures, but officials and the owner ignored the warnings.. “The formula behind Abdolbaghi becoming rich is smart management and building relationships [with regime entities], privileged opportunities, and forming ties with political and administrative figures,” the state-run Fidous website acknowledged on August 3, 2020.. Abdolbaghi and his construction holding built dozens of low-quality buildings in southwest Iran while plundering billions with the backing of IRGC.. Then the state TV staged a show, showing a disfigured victim and claimed it belonged to Abdolbaghi, while presenting his intact ID cards, supposedly found “under the ruins of Metropol!”

Tactical Ships (that are designed to duke it out in ship vs ship combat) and Strategic/Support/Auxiliary ships should be built very differently.. -In ship vs ship combat, you get to pick which ships on your team get to appear.. Losing your bridge = dead ship; losing the ammo usually results in an explosion that (depending on amount of ammo and size of ship) may instantly kill it, and having fuel tanks get hit may cause fires.. (The 2A37 also my recommended weapon of choice for Air Defense ships and a good secondary battery for larger tactical ships to shoot down incoming shells and missiles) Ammo Types: HE, Incendiary. Due to their sheer mass of Large Hull sections it becomes inefficient to build small ships with RD series engines, and very expensive to build fast ships (even if large) with them.Faster, smaller ships will use D-30, NK-25 and D-30S engines for propulsion.. While it is possible to propel a large ship with small engines, the large ship will have extreme fuel consumption for its mass and design speed, not recommended when fuel is one of your biggest expenses in the campaign.. It’s not perfect, though, because it doesn’t have the damage resistance of armor; you can see this when interlaced armor/reinforced structure triangles get hit by a missile; the structure triangles go deep red or die immediately, whilst the armor triangles (that didn’t fall off from the missing structure) go pink/light red.They also cost more money and time to repair, and worst of all (unlike hits on armor) hits on structure trigger a “bullet holes on your screen” graphical effect.. It cannot target enemy ships, which is a shame because it’s speed would make it a great light ship hunter and also give tactical ships a reason to fit electronics.. However, it's very nice for your air defense ship to be able to destroy an enemy missile carrier on it's own, and A-100Ns are great at air defense, *cough* spoiler *cough*... but first we must look at what makes a good Air Defense ship tick.. Since only 1 missile will attack you per combat, and aircraft come in waves of 3, combined with the fact it is much easier to kill an aircraft or missile flying directly into your gunfire or Sprints, my doctrine emphasizes using a singleton AAW ship to block enemy missile or aircraft raids .. Decisive Battle Doctrine -Place stealth reconnaissance craft ~1000km in front of primary fleets-Use aircraft to scout long range sensor signatures (i.e. ELINT pings, search radar blips)-Leave radars on, attract enemy heavy fleets-Trigger alarm with aircraft (+retreat) before attacking a garrison to alert the enemy-Use attack frigates to hunt traders, attract enemy heavy fleets-Detach solo aaw frigate to stand between missiles/aircraft and your battlegroup-Use aircraft to stand in for aaw frigate when air defense missiles begin to run low-2x optimized attack frigates melt early SG, minimal repair bill-ARM + aircraft raids soften up late game SG, then attack frigates go in

The “Building the Future Force Panel” consisted of Vice Admiral (VADM) William Galinis, USN, Commander, Naval Sea Systems Command; Mr. Tom Rivers, Executive Director, Amphibious, Auxiliary, and Sealift Ships, Program Executive Office (PEO) Ships ; Rear Admiral RDML Chad Jacoby, USCG, Director of Acquisition Programs and Program Executive Officer; Rear Admiral Casey Moton, USN, Program Executive Officer for Unmanned Systems and Small Combatants; and Mr. Bob Shevock, Executive Director, Program Executive Officer for Integrated Warfare Systems.. The Integrated Combat System slide by PEO Integrated Warfare Systems shows the plan to make the U.S. Navy ships have a common sensor and combat system.Mr.. Bob Shevock, Executive Director, Program Executive Officer for Integrated Warfare Systems, started by stating that putting sensors on new ships that have already been put on existing ships increases commonality and technological maturity and cuts down on technological risks, costs, and a repeat of what happened with the highly complex and over budget Ford -class nuclear-powered aircraft carriers and the stealthy Zumwalt -class destroyers.. Mr. Shevock said not really for railguns, but missiles and lasers (lasers as they mature) will be required for anti-hypersonic missile ship defense, and the U.S. Navy needs to rely on ship sensors and overhead sensors (i.e.: satellites) to provide advance warning to these multitude of weapons (hence the benefits of the Integrated Combat System).. We have to be careful to find that balance and not control it too much and be careful with ethics and bias.” RDML Moton cited that AI can tie into the design of the systems and Mr. Tom Rivers agreed, alluding that AI can help in ships and ship design such as additive manufacturing.. Rear Admiral (RDML) Chad Jacoby, USCG, Director of Acquisition Programs and Program Executive Officer said that the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter (USCGC) Polar Star, America’s only heavy Polar -class icebreaker is 46 years old in January 2022, so getting the new Polar Security Cutter (PSC) class designed, scheduled, managed, and built correctly is important.. We work closely with the [U.S.] Navy on these acquisitions so that means this updated [USCG] fleet is going to carry 49 common systems across Coast Guard assets and Navy assets like gun weapons systems, communication systems, [and] sensors.”. Mr. Tom Rivers, Executive Director, Amphibious, Auxiliary, and Sealift Ships, Program Executive Office (PEO) Ships said that 45 Battle Force Ships are under construction, 30 connectors, and over 500 boats or crafts under construction (see top slide under main title).. — Mr. Tom Rivers, Executive Director, Amphibious, Auxiliary, and Sealift Ships, Program Executive Office (PEO) Ships. Next Generation Logistics Ship (NGLS) PEO Ships is also conducting new studies for the Next Generation Logistics Ship (called NGLS) and these studies will address ship design tradeoffs and tradeoffs between capability and affordability.. Mr. Rivers responded to a question regarding the Light Amphibious Warship (LAW) program status by saying that PEO Ships is working with LAW industry partners to refine the Requirements and that the LAW’s Phase II contract was awarded for different parent designs for NAVSEA PEO Ships to review and learn from these new LAW designs.. Some ships such as the DDG 51 and the new Frigate have land-based system test sites because manned ships don’t have prototype opportunities such as unmanned vessels.. Future Hospital Ships Mr. Rivers answered a question on the potential replacement for the aging T-AH Comfort and Mercy Hospital ships saying that both ships are undergoing major overhauls to upgrade their systems to keep them in the Fleet a little longer while plans to replace them are in the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA).. NAVSEA / US Navy image.Rear Admiral Casey Moton, USN, Program Executive Officer for Unmanned Systems and Small Combatants said that the Constellation -class future frigate (FFG 62) and unmanned combat ships have accomplished significant milestones in 2021.

Try maintaining a time limit while answering Fire: Friend and Foe Class 7 MCQs Questions with Answers so that it would be useful in your actual exams.. Download the Fire: Friend and Foe Multiple Choice Questions PDF free of cost and get good scores in the board exams.. Use the Objective Questions of Class 7th Fire: Friend and Foe MCQ with Answers provided below and understand all the concepts easily.. It only means that fire is very useful as long as it is kept under control.. AnswerAnswer: (b) Fire: Friend and Foe. On the whole, we have learned rather well to control fire and put it to good use in our everyday life.. AnswerAnswer: (c) Fire: Friend and Foe. (a) How to control the fire. (b) How to make good use of fire. (c) How to extinguish. (d) Both (a) and (b). Some fires cannot be put out with water.. This can be very dangerous because water can flow quickly, carrying the burning oil with it and spreading the fire.. AnswerAnswer: (b) a carbon dioxide extinguisher. Fire is indeed a friend but as we know it can be a dangerous enemy once it gets out of control.. Fire is a _________.. AnswerAnswer: (c) Fire: Friend and Foe. (a) Call for the fire brigade. (b) Passed buckets of water. (c) Formed human chains. (d) Both (b) and (c)

On August 8, the night after the Marine units landed on Guadalcanal, three American cruisers and one Australian cruiser had been sunk at the Battle of Savo Island, which had been fought within sight of the Marines on Guadalcanal.. As soon as he came ashore at Taivu Point, Ichiki radioed the Japanese base at Rabaul on the island of New Britain, “We have succeeded in invasion.” According to his orders, Ichiki was to wait until the second half of his unit arrived before trying to retake Henderson Field, but he was confident that his men would have no trouble wiping out any Americans they encountered.. The firing from the Marine positions drowned out the shouting as the men of Ichiki’s detachment ran forward.. The half buried bodies of Japanese soldiers of the Ickiki Detachment, killed in action during the Battle of the Tenaru on Guadalcanal, offer mute testimony to the ferocity and volume of fire leveled at them by U.S. Marines in the predawn hours of August 21, 1942.Some of the Japanese officers thought the fence must have been electrified because so many men were stopped in front of it and were examining the wire.. Japanese soldiers pretending to be dead shot several Marines; others used grenades to blow themselves up along with an unsuspecting Marine.

REUTERS/Valentyn Ogirenko. Intelligence officers working at Chornobyl officially became part of Ukraine’s security apparatus in 1991, but they continued to take orders from Moscow, said the person with direct knowledge of the invasion plan.. The source with direct knowledge of the invasion plan said that in November 2021 Russia started sending undercover intelligence agents to Ukraine, tasked with establishing contacts with officials responsible for securing the Chornobyl power plant.. Ukraine’s police, and the SBU, were on heightened alert in response to the Russian threat, and the national police chief said in a statement at the time that security was reinforced at the Chornobyl plant.. Viter, according to his testimony to Ukrainian investigators, told the commander, in Russian: “Spare your people.” Viter had no official authority over the National Guard, and Reuters could not determine whether the commander was heeding Viter’s words when the unit surrendered after discussions with the Russian invaders.. An extract from the court’s register, seen by Reuters, shows that law enforcement agents have initiated a second investigation into Viter for suspected treason by “deliberately assisting the military units of the aggressor country, the Russian Federation, in carrying out subversive activities against Ukraine.” They have yet to uncover evidence tying him to Russian special services.. In particular, military prosecutors on Viter’s case are interested in his connection to a former Ukrainian official called Andriy Naumov, according to sources with knowledge of the investigation and a transcript of Viter’s questioning seen by Reuters.. Investigators from the SBU alleged at the time that Medvedchuk passed secret details about Ukrainian military units to Russian officials, and intended to recruit Ukrainian agents and covertly influence Ukrainian politics.. Lutsenko, the former Ukraine prosecutor general, told Reuters that before the Russian invasion, Medvedchuk used an encrypted telephone that was issued to him by the Kremlin, equipment reserved only for the most senior Russian officials and pro-Russian separatist leaders.. Amid the chaos early in the war, Bakanov, then the head of the SBU, left Kyiv for at least three days after the Russian invasion, according to three people in Ukrainian law enforcement.

A Colossus is a planet killer that cannot target enemy ships, just enemy planets.. Aside from that, the Colossus itself is not very useful.. Like other ships, including the Titan, it’s weapons loadout and defenses can be adjusted to counter whatever the enemy is throwing at you at the time.. Its drawback when compared to the Titan is that it has a considerably less weapons and defensive slots, plus it can’t make your fleets any more effective like a Titan can.. A Titan has seven weapon slots and 12 defensive slots compared to one weapons slot for the Colossus and 6 defensive slots for shield and armor.. When compared to a Titan that has not been upgraded it also has a slightly slower sub light speed.. The Colossus destroys entire worlds either by blowing them apart or by destroying all life on the planet but using it could have serious repercussions.. By destroying a planet, you will be in Breach of Galactic Law if the Reverence for Life resolution has been passed, which bans the use of World Crackers.. With Total War the goal is pretty basic, capture all the enemy worlds to win the war and wipe the enemy empire out of existence.. This weapon destroys material and biological life on the planet, but it does not blow it apart.. The first step to gaining access to a Colossus is unlocking the Colossus Project Ascension Perk.. To unlock it you first need to have three other Ascension Perks unlocked, need to have the technology for a Titan researched, and then need to have an open Ascension Perk slot.. Researching it will stop research on any other Engineering projects and will cost 5,000 research and take about 120 months, depending on how much research capability your empire has.. It has 3,000 hull points, 600 armor, 1200 shield power, an evasion rating of 2%, and a speed of 121.

On June 23rd Grodno was taken after hard fight - German troops enter the burning town.. From June 22th to 25th German destroyed about 1300 Soviet armored vehicles. On July 2nd Romanian troops crossed river Prut together with German troops and penetrated into Bessarabia.. ln the high north Finnish and German troops fight side by side - German tanks march to Salla on July 8th. On July 18th German and Romanian troops assemble before crossing Dnestr river. Using inflated boats German infantry crosses the Dnestr, while German and Romanian artillery fire on the opposite shore. German infantry capture Soviet transport train on the east outskirt of Smolensk. Attack of German aircraft on a Soviet headquarters in the East Ukraine.. German troops, using these tiny storm boats, go against Oesel Island, which fell in German hands by the end of September. On October 2nd German troops of the central part of the Eastern front go once more to the attack.. On October 7 the encirclment of several Soviet armies is completed near Viasma -. German soldiers getting the stubbornly defending Bolshevists from theirs positions south-west of Viasma. The German front lines are stretched from the Barents Sea down to the south coast of Crimea - observer of the Mountain troops unit takes position on the Fisherman's peninsula. Soviet night attack on the central front sector was crushed by the German defensive fire.

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