Building Construction is Still the Firefighter's Enemy (2023)

Recently, I was discussing textbooks and reference materials that I have in my library at home with some of my constituents. Spending over a quarter of a century in the fire service has allowed me to amass a considerable amount of literature as it pertains to the discharge of our duties as firefighters. There are a few that I continue to reference, primarily because these specific books have proven to withstand the passages of time, techniques and industry standards. One such book will always be Frank Brannigan’s third edition of Building Construction for the Fire Service (BCFS).

While I also possess the latest version of this manual, I will go on record and state that I will never find a reason good enough to discard this reference guide, for a few reasons. First and foremost, I tip my helmet in respect to the Old Professor and Glen Corbett, PE, for combining forces prior to deliver the high-quality fourth edition of BCFS. Although I have a copy of that edition as well, I still use his third edition consistently more than any other reference book in my library. Secondly, the copy I have was signed by the Old Professor himself; it is irreplaceable.

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Hitting The Streets To Find Hazards

Brannigan’s mantra, “The Building is Your Enemy. Know Your Enemy,” was drilled into my sub-conscious at an early age, and I continue to preach his words to anyone who will listen. It is a message that I continue to pass on to every one of my department members, boot school recruits, seminar attendees, and fire service professionals within earshot of my discussions. In order to “…Know the Enemy” we owe it to Frank’s memory to continue to seek out new ways that the “Enemy” is plotting to catch us off-guard, laying in wait to catch us in a moment of apathy. A great way of doing this is our “field trips” to construction sites within our first-due response area, looking to see how the structures are built before the fire. Additionally, I have been known to travel with a digital camera within close proximity for just this reason; many times construction “techniques” are present, wide open for all to see. As I have done for many years, I have photographed some interesting existing construction “concerns” that raised an eyebrow when I saw them for the first time. In keeping with Chief Brannigan’s message, I present a few “nuggets” of building construction awareness that you should feel free to pass on to anyone who wants them.

A new residential development was being constructed within two miles of my station, so we took a ride over to see how the construction was progressing. Photo 1 was taken at the area where construction materials are dropped off by delivery vehicles for crews to grab as needed. A stack of TJI joists were draped over a job box, and curved and weakened as they sat. These TJI joists are used in the floors and roofs of these residences; it is bad enough that during construction the cutout guidelines are rarely followed. Most of the time I have seen cutouts widened beyond the maximum limit by workers. Finding these joists in this condition is disheartening, because I know these joists will find their way into the floor of one of these new “starter castles.”

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Looking inside one of the castles, I immediately was intrigued by the presence of an indoor balcony within the great room (Photo 2). Further scrutiny revealed a series of cantilevered beams that were hung in joist hangers and Tico sheer nails, and extended out from a Parallam header in the room. Furthermore, the voids within the bottom of the balcony house a number of recessed light fixtures. The voids will allow fire to travel unimpeded, and attack the cantilevered beams, possibly leading to early collapse on an unsuspecting hose team.

Traveling on my way to work, I drove past a garage that was being “renovated,” so to speak. What really caught my interest was the method of transformation this building experienced. Many times buildings are renovated and rarely have any problems with the end result. However, comparing Photo 3 (the finished result) and Photo 4 (during construction) suggests that many surprises lay in wait within this garage. The smart Incident Commander (IC) who familiarizes oneself with construction in the surrounding area can feel confident with the tactics deployed at an emergency. This one suggests a defensive posture early upon arrival.

Our crew was sent out to perform a Smoke Detector Compliance Test at a residence that was being sold in our community. While we were there, the owner asked us to assist in changing the battery within the attic detector. Entering into the attic was not through a scuttle hatch; it was through a full-size door. Apparently, the owner “renovated” this space to allow for additional storage within the attic. His plan included sawing out multiple web posts and the king post within a series of trusses in the attic space over the garage (Photo 5). Moreover, the bottom chord of this peak roof truss is now in compression, instead of tension, because of the weight of the stored materials transferred to the floor. This area can collapse even without being ravaged by flames, but most responders wouldn’t know it by looking from the exterior.

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We responded to a partial collapse of a carport after a delivery truck hit the underside of the roof assembly. Upon arrival, the carport overhang was obviously displaced on the columns supporting it, but did not seem to be significant in nature. Further investigation was needed to check the interior and underside of the roof assembly, exposing a lightweight metal truss assembly within the carport (Photo 6). Responding to this facility on routine alarms usually places one apparatus within the underside of this carport; since the discovery, the staging area for apparatus has now been changed.

Stopping by a construction site for a new retail store, I was curious about a truss assembly that had been placed off to the side of the site. These trusses were doubled up, constructed of wood and metal, and had engineered wood thrust blocks within the webs of the assemblies (Photo 7). I took the pictures to one of the engineers on our USAR (urban search and rescue) team, and he explained to me that these are Wood Chord, Metal Web Truss Assemblies (WCMW Truss). The WCMW truss is used in the roof assembly where there exists a significant concentrated load, perhaps an HVAC unit, ventilation system assemblies, and the like. Assembling these units includes a ¾” pin through both the chord and the web ends, connecting the metal webs to the chords. The insertion of this pin leaves a little more than ½” of material above and below the pins, making for a significant weak point in the assembly.

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Repairs to structures are not usually exposed for all to see; in Photo 8, repairs were made to a five-story heavy timber structure in a neighboring community. While spreader plates are common within Type III and IV construction, symmetrical placement of these plates suggests that the building was designed to use these plates and tension rod assemblies. The beams in place in this application are serving as a “tie-back” for this wall. This is a red flag, for any response. This area must be avoided at all costs.

Looking at Photo 9, the obvious renovations are what draw your attention. Further looking at the area in question, there are multiple types of construction/loading within this wall, along with multiple layers of outside covering and siding. These clues suggest this building has been experiencing numerous problems throughout its lifespan. Additionally, changes to the loading of exterior walls can have a serious impact on how the rest of the structure is supported.


Chief Brannigan was a proponent of pre-planning buildings within the firefighter’s response area, as this arms the IC with as much knowledge about how the building was constructed prior to the fire. I continue to seek out hazards within our response area, and share this knowledge with as many people as I can. I challenge you to do the same; take your crew out for a “field trip” and look to see what is going around in front of you. I will bet that you will be surprised by what you will find, especially when you go out looking for it.


Until next time, stay focused and stay safe!

  • See Mike Live! Author Lt. Michael Daley will be presenting "Basement Fires" and "Strategies and Tactics for Fires in Attics and Cocklofts" at Firehouse Expo in Baltimore, July 23 - 27.

MICHAEL P. DALEY is a lieutenant and training officer with the Monroe Township, NJ, Fire District No. 3, and is an instructor with the Middlesex County Fire Academy, where he is responsible for rescue training curriculum development. Mike has an extensive background in fire service operations and holds degrees in business management and public safety administration. Mike serves as a rescue officer with the New Jersey Urban Search and Rescue Task Force 1 and is a managing member for Fire Service Performance Concepts, a consultant group that provides assistance and support to fire departments with their training programs and course development. You can reach Michael by e-mail at:


Why do they wait to put water on a fire? ›

Water cools and smothers the fire at the same time. It cools it so much that it can't burn anymore, and it smothers it so that it can't make any more of the oxygen in the air explode. You can also put out a fire by smothering it with dirt, sand, or any other covering that cuts the fire off from its oxygen source.

Why do firefighters start fires to put out? ›

Firefighters light backfires to slow the Electra Fire

From coast-to-coast, firefighters purposively set prescribed burns and backfires to rob fire of natural fuel and help some plant species survive.

How do firefighters put out a fire? ›

Firefighters control a fire's spread (or put it out) by removing one of the three ingredients fire needs to burn: heat, oxygen, or fuel. They remove heat by applying water or fire retardant on the ground (using pumps or special wildland fire engines) or by air (using helicopters/airplanes).

What is the role of the fire service when attending a major incident? ›

protecting life and property in the event of fires in their area. rescuing and protecting people in the event of a road traffic collision, and. rescuing and protecting people in the event of other emergencies.

Can boiling water start a fire? ›

Boiling water doesn't start fires. Water boils at around 100 degrees Celsius or 212 degrees Fahrenheit. There's not much that has an auto-ignition point below this temperature (and as boiling water has no flame, only the heat from the water could cause a fire).

Is fire hot or cold? ›

Fire is always hot, regardless of the fuel that is used. Although combustion requires activation energy (ignition), the net heat released exceeds the energy required.

What do you call someone who starts fire? ›

countable noun. An arsonist is a person who deliberately sets fire to a building or vehicle. Synonyms: pyromaniac, incendiary, firestarter More Synonyms of arsonist.

Can you fight fire with salt water? ›

Seawater puts out fire just as well as fresh water, and although seawater is tougher on pump equipment than fresh water, proper maintenance and flushing of the systems would limit their corrosive properties on our pumps,” Capt. Larry Kurtz of the Fire Authority told Honk in an email.

What is it called when a fireman starts a fire? ›

Firefighter arson is a long-standing problem that impacts fire departments and communities across the nation. History suggests that firefighter arson is not a new phenomenon. In fact, the number of media reports suggests there are likely over 100 arrests per year.

Can salt put out fire? ›

Salt will smother the fire almost as well as covering it with a lid, while baking soda chemically extinguishes it. But you'll need a lot of each--toss on handfuls with abandon until the flame subsides. Avoid using flour or baking powder, which can explode in the flames instead of snuffing them out.

What do firefighter do for kids? ›

In addition to their roles in emergency situations, firefighters conduct drills and training, clean and maintain their equipment, prepare reports on emergencies, and provide public education on fire safety.

What do firefighters wear? ›

Modern turnout jackets and pants are made of fire resistant fabrics such as Nomex, Aramid or Kevlar. Bunker gear or turnout gear is the term used by many fire departments to refer to the protective clothing worn by firefighters.

What are 3 responsibilities of a firefighter? ›

To respond to fire alarms, medical emergencies, hazardous materials, urban rescue and other calls to protect life and property; to participate in fire prevention and training; and to maintain the fire station and firefighting equipment.

What are the duties of leader of the fire fighting team? ›

1 The Fire Team Leader is responsible for: "o Directing fire fighting operations. "o Coordinating fire response with the Emergency Coordinator (EC), if there is a declared emergency.

What are the methods in preventing fire? ›

10 Ways You Can Prevent a Fire Today
  • Blow out candles before leaving a room or going to bed.
  • When cooking, keep towels, pot holders and curtains away from flames.
  • Keep matches, lighters and other ignitable substances in a secured location out of the reach of children, and only use lighters with child-resistant features.

Can you burn milk? ›

Always simmer, if you boil milk too hard or too fast it will scorch and burn if not stirred.

Can fire burn underwater? ›

Can fire indeed burn underwater? Fire can burn underwater, and welding and construction work can even be done deep into the water's depths by utilizing the power of fire. With a specialized welding torch, dual hoses can create oxygen gas and a combustible substance so that a fire may burn.

Can you burn ice? ›

What's actually happening is that the heat from the burning alcohol melts the ice and accellerates the evaporation of the water. But the ice itself isn't burning. Another way to “burn” ice is by adding calcium carbide to ice. This causes the calcium carbine to use the ice as fuel to burn the carbide.

Why can't we use water to put out some fires? ›

Water flows on and it has the risk of spreading the fire along. In case of electric fires water cannot be used as an extinguisher. It being a good conductor of electricity, puts the life of the man spraying it in danger.

When should you not put water on a fire? ›

You should never throw water on an electrical fire because water conducts electricity and you could be electrocuted. 2. If you don't have a fire extinguisher, you can use baking soda to extinguish an electrical fire.

What kind of fire Cannot be put out with water? ›

Never use water to extinguish flammable liquid fires.

Water is extremely ineffective at extinguishing this type of fire, and you may, in fact, spread the fire if you try to use water on it.

Can fire burn underwater? ›

Can fire indeed burn underwater? Fire can burn underwater, and welding and construction work can even be done deep into the water's depths by utilizing the power of fire. With a specialized welding torch, dual hoses can create oxygen gas and a combustible substance so that a fire may burn.

What will you do if a person catches fire? ›

ROLL over and over and back and forth, covering your face and mouth with your hands (this will prevent flames from burning your face and smoke from entering your lungs). Roll over and over for a long time until the flames are extinguished. COOL the burn with cool water for 10-15 minutes. CALL a grown-up for help.

Does fire create water? ›

In complete combustion, the burning fuel will produce only water and carbon dioxide (no smoke or other products). The flame is typically blue. In complete combustion, the burning fuel will produce only water and carbon dioxide (no smoke or other products).

How is oxygen removed from a fire? ›

Removal of oxygen from the area around a fire can be achieved with a carbon dioxide extinguisher or a fire blanket. The carbon dioxide extinguisher pushes oxygen away from the fire and replaces it with carbon dioxide, which is non-flammable and more dense than air.

Can you throw flour on a fire? ›

No. Flour should NEVER be used to extinguish a grease fire. It could be ignited, making matters worse. Baking powder and baking soda are NOT the same thing, and like flour, will make a fire worse.

What puts out a fire? ›

Fire extinguishers use either water, foam, dry powder, CO2, and wet chemicals to extinguish fires. Some use a combination. The basic classifications for home use include: Class A – This type is used on any fire that may be extinguished with water.

How do electrical fires start in walls? ›

Fires start in electrical panels from overloaded circuits or age of the panel. The panel and circuits become overloaded when the distribution of electricity is inadequate. Occasionally, lighting equipment acts as a source of heat that is too close to easily combustible materials.

What are the 3 ways to extinguish a fire? ›

All fires can be extinguished by cooling, smothering, starving or by interrupting the combustion process to extinguish the fire.

Why is oxygen not used in fire extinguishers? ›

CO2, being heavier than oxygen, covers the fire like a blanket. Since the contact between the fuel and oxygen is cut off, the fire is controlled. Therefore, CO2 is used in fire extinguishers.


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