20 Main Motherboard Components and Their Functions (2022)

This essay from MiniTool will introduce you with 20 major components of a motherboard together with their basic information including their functions.

According to Wikipedia, a motherboard is the main printed circuit board (PCB) in common computers (both desktops and laptops) as well as other expandable systems. It is also known as a mainboard, main circuit board, system board, baseboard, logic board, planar board or mobo.

Motherboard Components and Their Functions

There are many components found in a motherboard. Some of them are major motherboard components while others are not. The following is a motherboard components list.

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20 Major Motherboard Components

  1. CPU (Central Processing Unit) chip
  2. RAM (Random Access Memory) slots
  3. Southbridge/northbridge
  4. BIOS (Basic Input/Output System)
  5. I/O port
  6. USB (Universal Serial Bus)
  7. CPU slot
  8. PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) slot
  9. AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) slot
  10. ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) slot
  11. Parallel port
  12. FDC (Floppy-Disk Controller)
  13. IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) controller
  14. CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide-semiconductor) battery
  15. Power supply connector
  16. Mouse and keyboard ports
  17. DIP (Dual In-line Package) switch
  18. Jumper
  19. Heat sink/heatsink (cooling system)
  20. Clock generator

1. CPU (Central Processing Unit) chip

CPU is the electronic circuitry in a computer that executes instructions that make up a program. It is also known as a central processor or the main processor. The CPU executes the basic logic, arithmetic, controlling as well as input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions in the desktop programs.

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2. RAM (Random Access Memory) slots

RAM is a kind of computer memory that can be read and written. It is mainly used to save data and machine code. A RAM device permits data to be read or written in nearly the same amount of time no matter where the data’s physical location is in the memory. Compared to the direct-access storage devices like hard drives, CD/DVD and magnetic tapes, RAM media is much faster for data reading and writing.

3. Southbridge/northbridge

They are the two chips in the core logic chipset on the motherboard. Typically, the southbridge implements the slower capabilities of the motherboard in a northbridge/southbridge chipset computer architecture.

The northbridge, also known as host bridge or Memory Controller Hub, is connected directly to the CPU via the front-side bus (FSB). It is responsible for tasks requiring the highest performance. Together with the southbridge, they manage communications between the CPU and other motherboard components.

4. BIOS (Basic Input/Output System)

BIOS, also called system BIOS, PC BIOS or ROM BIOS, is firmware that is used to perform hardware initialization during the booting process; and to provide runtime services for operating system and programs. The BIOS firmware is the first software to run when powered on; it is re-installed on a PC’s system board.

5. I/O port

Input/output ports are the connections between the CPU and peripheral devices on a motherboard. There are two complementary methods to perform input and output processes: memory-mapped I/O (MMIO) and port-mapped I/O (PMIO). Alternatively, you can use dedicated I/O processors, called channels on mainframe computers, which execute their own instructions.

6. USB (Universal Serial Bus)

USB is an industry standard that creates specifications for connectors, cables and protocols for connection; power supply (interfacing) and communication among computers, computer peripherals as well as other desktops. There are a great many USB hardware including several different connectors, of which USB-C is the latest kind.

7. CPU slot

A CPU slot, also called a CPU socket or Processor socket, contains one or more mechanical components that provide mechanical and electrical connections between the PCB and a microprocessor (CPU). Therefore, you can install a CPU on a motherboard without soldering.

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8. PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) slot

Peripheral Component Interconnect is a local computer bus for connecting hardware to a computer. It supports all the functions of a processor bus. PCI is usually been called Conventional PCI to distinguish it from its successor PCI Express (PCIe, PCI-e or PCI-E).

PCI Express is a high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard designed to replace the older PCI, PCI-X and AGP bus standard. It is a general-use motherboard interface for the graphics card, SSDs, hard drives, Wi-Fi as well as Ethernet hardware connections.

9. AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) slot

AGP was designed as a high-speed point-to-point channel for connecting a video card (graphics card) to a computer system. Primarily, it was used to assist in the acceleration of 3D computer graphics. AGP is originally designed to be a descendant of the PCI series of connections for video cards. Yet, it was replaced by the PCIe slots.

10. ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) slot

ISA is the 16-bit internal bus of IMB PC/AT and similar computers that are based on Intel 80286 and its immediate successors during the 1980s. It was backward compatible with the 8-bit bus of the 8088-based IBM PC largely.

There once was an attempt to extend ISA into a 32-bit bus, called Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA). The attempt wasn’t very successful and the EISA was largely replaced by the later VESA Local Bus and the PCI bus.

11. Parallel port

A parallel port is a kind of interface for attaching peripherals on desktops. The name of this kind of port is derived from the way the data is sent. That is, the parallel ports send multiple bits of data at the same time. Serial interfaces, on the contrary, send bits one data at once. To achieve parallel data transfer, there are multiple data lines in the parallel port cables. The parallel port cable is larger than the cable of a contemporary serial port, which only has one data line within.

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12. FDC (Floppy-Disk Controller)

FDC is a special-purpose chip and associated disk controller circuitry. It controls and directs reading from and writing to a computer’s floppy disk drive (FDD).

13. IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) controller

The devices used for connecting IDE, Ethernet, FireWire, USB and other systems can be called host adapter. So, the IDE controller refers to the host adapter. A host adapter, also called a host controller or a host bus adapter (HBA), connects a computer (acting as the host system) to other network and storage devices.

Tip: Host adapter is usually used to indicate devices connecting SCSI, Fibre Channel and SATA devices.

14. CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide-semiconductor) battery

CMOS battery, also called memory battery, clock battery or real-time clock (RTC), is generally a CR2032 lithium coin cell. The lifespan of the CMOS battery is estimated to be three years when the power supply unit (PSU) is unplugged or switch off.

15. Power supply connector

A power supply provides the necessary electrical power to let the computer to work. It takes standard 110-Volt AC (Alternative Current) power to DC (Direct Current) power of 12 Volt, 5 Volt, 3.3 Volt, etc.

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16. Mouse and keyboard ports

All computers have a keyboard port connected directly to the motherboard. There are two types of connectors. The oldest one is a special DIN (Deutsches Institut für Normung) connector while the newest one is the mini DIN PS/2-style connector. Many PCs use the PS/2-style connectors for both keyboard and mouse; and the connectors are marked clearly for different usage.

17. DIP (Dual In-line Package) switch

A DIP switch is a manual electric switch packaged with others in a standard dual in-line package. The term may refer to an individual switch or the whole unit. The DIP switch is designed to be used on a printed circuit board (motherboard) together with other electronic motherboard components. It is usually used to customize the behavior of an electronic device for specific situations.

18. Jumper

A jumper is a short length of conductor that is used to close, open or bypass part of an electronic circuit. Typically, jumpers are used to set up or configure printed circuit boards like the motherboard.

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19. Heat sink/heatsink (cooling system)

A heat sink is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by parts ofmotherboardinto a fluid medium like liquid or air. The fluid medium will dissipate away from the device. Thus, the temperature of the device is kept within a tolerable range. On the motherboard, the heatsink is usually used to cool CPU, GPU (graphics processing unit), chipsets and RAM modules.

20. Clock generator

A clock generator is an electronic oscillator (circuit) that produces a clock signal for usage in synchronizing a circuit’s operation. The clock signal ranges between high and low frequencies, thus creating a metronome for the coordination of actions.

What Are the Two Main Components on the Motherboard?

After reading the above contents, you can figure out that the two main components on the motherboard are CPU and RAM. They also list in the first two locations in the above. Actually, the above motherboard components are listed mainly based on their importance on the motherboard. Yet, that is just our personal opinion. Those components’ importance is different in different situations.

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FAQs

What are the components of the motherboard and their functions? ›

The motherboard is sometimes shortened to Mobo. Numerous major components, crucial for the functioning of the computer, are attached to the motherboard. These include the processor, memory, and expansion slots. The motherboard connects directly or indirectly to every part of the PC.

What are the 16 parts of motherboard? ›

Motherboard Diagram
1. CPU socket2. Chipset3. DIMM/RAM slots
4. PCIe x16 slot5. PCI x1 slot6. M.2 connector
7. SATA ports8. Front panel connectors9. USB 2. header
10. USB 3.1 Gen1 header11. USB 3.1 Gen2 header12. ATX power connector
13. CPU power connector14. BIOS chips15. CMOS battery
2 more rows
Jun 27, 2018

What are the five components of motherboard? ›

5 Components That Are Found on the Motherboard
  • Input/Output Ports. In a typical motherboard layout, the input/output ports are positioned so they align with the back of the computer chassis. ...
  • CPU Socket. ...
  • RAM Slots. ...
  • Expansion Card Slots. ...
  • Storage Device Connectors.

What are the functions of motherboard? ›

The motherboard serves as a single platform to connect all of the parts of a computer together. It connects the CPU, memory, hard drives, optical drives, video card, sound card, and other ports and expansion cards directly or via cables.

Is the motherboard the main component of a computer? ›

The motherboard is the most important component in the PC. All the component such as RAM stick, hard disk drive, optical drives, processor, processor fan and external card are plugin into motherboard.

How many components are there in motherboard? ›

There are three main basic components in the computer system which runs the whole system and they are Motherboard, Processor and the Memory. I will explain the motherboard and all its subparts in detail in this blog and the Processors and the Memory in the coming blogs.

What is motherboard Class 12? ›

Answer: The motherboard is a large printed circuit board and every physical unit is connected to it. It is the main circuit board of the computer system.

How many types of motherboards are there? ›

Motherboards come in three main sizes, from largest to smallest: ATX, Micro-ATX and Mini-ITX (Yes, Mini is smaller than Micro). You can use a smaller chassis with the micro or mini boards, but you'll have to settle for fewer PCIe slots, RAM slots and other connectors.

Is RAM part of motherboard? ›

The motherboard holds the CPU, RAM and ROM chips, etc. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the "brain" of the computer. It executes instructions (from software) and tells other components what to do.

What are the 3 functions of motherboard? ›

The motherboard serves as a single platform to connect all of the parts of a computer together. It connects the CPU, memory, hard drives, optical drives, video card, sound card, and other ports and expansion cards directly or via cables. It can be considered as the backbone of a computer.

What are the 3 types of motherboard? ›

The three types of motherboard are XT motherboard, AT motherboard and ATX motherboard.

What are the four functions of CPU? ›

CPU Operations

The four primary functions of a processor are fetch, decode, execute and write back. Fetch- is the operation which receives instructions from program memory from a systems RAM.

How many components are there in motherboard? ›

There are three main basic components in the computer system which runs the whole system and they are Motherboard, Processor and the Memory. I will explain the motherboard and all its subparts in detail in this blog and the Processors and the Memory in the coming blogs.

What is the function of the RAM? ›

RAM (Random Access Memory) is the hardware in a computing device where the operating system (OS), application programs and data in current use are kept so they can be quickly reached by the device's processor. RAM is the main memory in a computer.

Here are some of the parts of a motherboard and their function. The computer motherboard comprises components crucial to the functioning of a computer. Among them are the Central Processing Unit and Random Access Memory. Learn more about the parts of a motherboard and their functions.

These include the processor, memory, and expansion slots.. In other words, it is the working place of your computer, where active programs and data are loaded so that any time the processor requires them, it doesn't have to fetch them from the hard disk.. L2 cache on an old motherboard.. Cache memory is a small block of high-speed memory (RAM) that enhances PC performance by pre-loading information from the (relatively slow) main memory and passing it to the processor on demand.. The CPU clock synchronizes the operation of all parts of the PC and provides the basic timing signal for the CPU.. This is a computer slot that allows you to insert expansion cards into your computer.. The CMOS RAM is used to store basic Information about the PC’s configuration.. When you power on your computer, it has to test major devices such as RAM, Processor, Keyboard, and Drives among others.. Question: Which is the most important component of a computer system?. But what about the memory, can a computer operate without the memory?

various components of motherboard like memory ,cpu, pci slots , agp slots, south bridges, north bridges,rj-45 port, usb port, heatsink , jumper,transistor,audio port and many more

CPUs, memory, storage, capacitors, transistors, slots, and connectors will be found in the majority of modern electronic devices.. You can easily grasp the components of other electrical devices if you understand all of the components on your desktop.. RAM Chip and RAM Slot CPU Chip and Socket PCI Slots ROM Chip Accelerated Graphics Port North Bridge SouthBridge CMOS Battery Power Supply Plug Parallel Port Serial Port SATA and PATA Connector USB Port DVI Port RJ-45 Port HDMI Port FDD Connector Optical Drive Audio Connector 1394 Headers F Audio Connectors Heat Sink Switches and Jumper Microphone port, headphone port, subwoofer port, guitar port, DVD player port, stereo receiver port Capacitor Transistor VRMs Mounting Screw Hole Power, Reset, SW, LED Pins. RAM (random access memory) is a type of temporary data storage device found in computers and other electronic devices.. Ans: Generally PCI slots are available on desktop PC but not in most laptops do not have reusable PCI slots because of their compact size and space.. It connects southbridge to the CPU.. Generally, it does lots of work with the CPU, so it is located near to the CPU generally with the heatsink.. It is linked to the PCI bus, ISA buses, IDE buses, audio, serial devices such as a mouse, keyboard, USB ports, and so on, as well as a SATA hard disk connector.. 4) CMOS battery in laptop and desktop PC is 3V. The primary function of the Motherboard's Power Supply plug is to supply power to the Motherboard and its attached components and peripherals.. In the motherboard, it is an L-shape port and so its cable is connected to the SATA port in one way only.. In motherboard, it has 15 pins.. Power Supply Cable connecting to devices and motherboard. PATA Cable and Port. Some computer also has an external SATA port.

The CPU is similar to the human brain. Its performance is based on simple operations, which are called instructions. Find out how your CPU works and how its speed is measured.

Many of us do not know how important this unit is to the performance of a computer.. The speed at which one operation is performed per second. Adding two numbers is a very simple example, but it illustrates the basic functions of the CPU.. Every single step you perform on your computer is in one way or another connected to this central unit, so it is very important to keep your processor in good form.. In processing this data, the CPU performs four basic steps:. The processor takes this address number from the program counter, which is responsible for tracking which instructions the CPU should execute next.. Store: The CPU must give feedback after executing an instruction, and the output data is written to the memory.. A "simple task" includes the smallest steps a processor can perform.. This is really great information that even a beginner can easily understand.. Silwen (author) from Europe on August 13, 2012:. thank u hub for giving as useful information .... Silwen (author) from Europe on April 03, 2012:

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The Z590 UD AC is well equipped to unleash the full performance of 11th / 10th Gen Intel Core processors, with robust power design, Ultra Durable components, and enlarged heatsinks providing more surface area for heat dissipation.. * RGB Fusion 2.0 offers users the option to control onboard RGB and external RGB / Addressable LED light strips for their PC.. With external Addressable LED strips*, where each LED is digitally addressable, users can experience even more patterns, styles, and illuminations.. With Z590 UD AC Motherboard will support either 5v or 12v Addressable LED lighting strips and up to 300 LED lights.. Monitor components such as processor, set your preferred fan speed profile, create alerts when temperatures get too high or record your system's behavior; these are the possibilities of the System Information Viewer.

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Z590 AORUS PRO AX uses a pure digital CPU power design which includes a digital PWM Controller with Smart Power Stages and is capable of providing 90A of power from each phase for a total of 1080A.. This 100% digital controller, new Tantalum Polymer Capacitors Array, and additional 8+4 Solid-pin CPU Power Connectors offer incredible precision and stability in delivering power to the motherboard's most power-hungry and energy-sensitive components, allowing enthusiasts to get the absolute maximum overclocking performance from the eight-core 11th Gen. Intel Core processors.. 90A Smart Power Stage for Each vCore Phase High Current Capacity MOSFET Tantalum Polymer Capacitors Array Lower Temperatures Improved Transient. All users need to do to attain this performance boost is to ensure that their memory module is XMP capable and that the XMP function is activated and enabled on their AORUS motherboard.. AORUS motherboards feature solid plated ATX 24pin & ATX 12V 8pin + 8pin power connectors to offer a stable power supply during CPU overloading.. Monitor components such as processor, set your preferred fan speed profile, and create alerts when temperatures get too high or record your system's behavior — these are the possibilities of the System Information Viewer.. Supports 11th and 10th Gen Intel Core Series Processors Dual Channel Non-ECC Unbuffered DDR4, 4 DIMMs Intel Optane Memory Ready Direct 12+1 Phases Digital VRM Solution with 90A Smart Power Stage Shielded Memory Routing to avoid Interference Advanced Thermal Solution with Fins-Array II Heatsink, Direct Touch Heatpipe II and Thermal Guard II Intel WiFi 6 802.11ax 2T2R & BT5 with AORUS Antenna AMP-UP Audio with ALC4080 and WIMA for Rear 120dB SNR Blazing Fast Intel 2.5GbE LAN with cFosSpeed Triple Ultra-Fast NVMe PCIe 4.0* / 3.0 x4 M.2 with Thermal Guards II for extreme RAID Performance RGB FUSION 2.0 with Multi-Zone Addressable LED Light Show Design, Support Addressable LED & RGB LED Strips Smart Fan 6 Features Multiple Temperature Sensor, Hybrid Fan Headers with FAN STOP and Noise Detection Q-Flash Plus Update BIOS without Installing CPU, Memory and Graphics Card

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